In 1938 the American physicist and inventor Chester Carlson (1906-1968) (start to see the nearby image) invented a dried out printing process, known as later Xerography (the word originates from the Greek for dry writing), the building blocks technology for copiers and laser printers to arrive. Carlson applied for patent in 1939 and in 1942 the patent was granted (US patent 2297691). After several years unsuccessful attempts to catch the fascination of companies to his invention, in 1947 Carlson succeeded to negotiate commercial rights to his invention to Haloid Enterprise (soon after renamed Xerox). This is the package of the life not merely for Carlson, also for the entirely unknown company Haloid, that will become one of biggest companies in the world for this reason invention.
In 1967 a researcher in Xerox’s Webster Research Centre in Rochester, Gary Keith Starkweather (born 9 Jan. 1938), B.S. in Physics from Michigan Status University in 1960, and a M.S. in Optics from the University of Rochester in 1966, was sitting in his laboratory looking at all of these big mainframes when he started out thinking: What if, rather of copying somebody else’s original, which is just what a facsimile will, we used a computer to create the original? And so the idea of the laser beam printer was born.
In this instances the lasers were rather expensive devices, but convinced that the expense of lasers would drop over time and that there was a market for laser printing technology, Starkweather stuck to his guns. His tips however were met with major resistance from Xerox supervision.
Starkweather was told by his bosses to stop working on the laser printer job. But he couldn’t. He previously to undergo with this idea. He ended up working on it covertly, convincing persons to get unique parts for him so he could build it. The prototype was prepared in 1969, made by modifying an existing xerographic copier. Starkweather disabled the imaging system and designed a spinning drum with 8 mirrored sides, with a laser beam focused on the drum. Mild from the laser beam would bounce off the spinning drum, sweeping over the page since it traveled through the copier. The hardware was completed in just a fourteen days, but the computer user interface and software had taken almost three months to complete.
The time has displayed that Xerox management was wrong for the reason that assumption: Printers now certainly are a pillar of the company’s growth strategy. In fact, Starkweather’s drive to create the laser beam printer finally transformed a tiny copier company into one of the world’s imaging powerhouses,and revolutionized the computer printing industry.
Salvation for Starkweather came found in 1970 when Xerox build the Palo Alto Exploration Center (PARC) in California. Starkweather named PARC and was welcomed, his job appeared to be a natural match their long-range plans.
Out of hostile territory and lastly given the freedom to carry out his research without concern with retribution, Starkweather visited work on building the laser beam printer. In 1971, simply nine months after becoming a member of PARC, Starkweather finished the first working laser printer.
He named this equipment SLOT, a great acronym for Scanned Laser End result Terminal. The digital control program and persona generator for the printer had been produced by Butler Lampson and Ronald Rider in 1972. The combined efforts led to a printer called EARS (Ethernet, Alto, Research identity generator, Scanned laser end result terminal). The EARS printer was used with the Alto computer system network and subsequently started to be the Xerox 9700 laser beam printing system.
Gradually the things became popular, and simply by 1973 Starkweather’s group had working types of this thing at the facility. The ultimate result-the Xerox 9700 (see the lower photo), introduced in 1977, was the industry’s first professional laser printer. It was a wild accomplishment, despite projections that few consumers would produce the 200000 to 300000 prints per month needed for the unit to be profitable.
Fresh off the victory of the 9700, Starkweather shifted his exploration onto personal laser beam printers,and again ran into opposition from Xerox. Xerox was a company that liked large, fast laser printers. They found departmental devices as the profit centre for laser beam printer technology.
Xerox failed to hook up the dots and recognize that the profit wasn’t found in the printer but in the toner and the paper. Because of this, the business was beaten to market by Hewlett-Packard, which created the first personal laser beam printer in 1980.
Xerox had a fascinating capability that has been characteristic of the business, and that’s that it definitely encouraged new ideas but never really liked to pursue them for lengthy. Things such as Postscript, the laser beam printer, the non-public computer, the bitmapped screen, the iconic user interface, Ethernet, packet switching, all this arrived of PARC. And none of it, ended up as something of Xerox.
Starkweather did start to see the writing about the wall at Xerox, however, and still left the company in 1987 after 24 years of service. Following a 10-time stint at Apple Pc, Starkweather joined Microsoft Study in 1997. Nowadays, his main place of research is display technology.